La taille du pénis de Valuev,
Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V; Joshi, B V; Sahai, K [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay India Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.
A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.
A study of U-BeO Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. The tools we have developed, grouped together in the RPH-HPN software Reseaux percolatifs hybrides - Hybrid Percolation Networks, construct random networks, detect contact between the tubes, translate the systems to equivalent electrical circuits and calculate global properties.
An infinity of networks can have the same basic characteristics size, diameter, etc.
To obtain those general properties, we simulate a large number of random networks with the same basic characteristics and the average of the quantities is determined. The network constituent elements can be spheres, rods or snakes.
The use of such geometries for network elements makes contact detection simple and quick, and more faithfully reproduce the form of carbon nanotubes. We closely monitor the geometrical and electrical properties of these elements through stochastic distributions of our choice.
We can choose the length, diameter, orientation, chirality, tortuosity and impenetrable nature of the elements in order to properly reproduce real networks characteristics.
- Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Criticality experiments on solutions of fissionable materials have been carried out in tanks of various geometries cylinder, isolated annular cylinder, interacting annular cylinders ; the reflexion conditions have also been varied without reflection, semi-reflection and total reflexion by water.
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We have considered statistical distribution functions that are rectangular, Gaussian, and Lorentzian, but all other distributions that can be expressed mathematically can also be envisioned.
During the creation of a particular network, we generate the elements one by one.
Each of their properties is sampled from a preselected distribution. Efficient algorithms used in various fields were adapted to our needs to manage the detection of contacts, clusters and percolation. In addition, we model more realistic contact between rigid nanotubes using an original method used to create the network that does not require a relaxation phase.
Finally, we use Kirchhoff's laws to solve the equivalent electrical circuit conventionally.
First, we evaluated Science. High quality theory matching ultra long fiber Bragg gratings up to 1 meter long are obtained for the first time.
The possibility of fabricating high quality La taille du pénis de Valuev long fiber Bragg grating of more than 10 cm approximately the maximal phase mask length opens a variety of new applications otherwise impossible with short fiber Bragg grating technology. Ultra long fiber Bragg gratings have unique characteristics such as high reflectivity, high dispersion and ultra narrow bandwidth.
Those characteristics can be used to do advanced signal processing, non linear propagation experiments, distributed feedback fiber lasers and dispersion compensator for telecommunication or optical tomography.
The second objective of this project is to use these ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings as an optical cavity for fiber lasers.
Alot of research in the past years have been concentrated on those lasers, particularly on distributed feedback fiber lasers where the gratings spans all the gain media. A new random fiber laser configuration is presented.
It is based on passive or active insertion of phase shifts along the Bragg grating to obtained La taille du pénis de Valuev phenomenon called light localization which is the optical equivalent of Anderson localization.
This complex wave phenomenon has the unique property to mimic the reflection of a uniform photonic crystal with the random diffusion of light among the elements of a random media.
Being commonly obtained in fine powders which must respect a certain set of rules, the realization le pénis sagrandit avec lâge 1D structures is vastly simplified in optical fibers.
Two random fiber laser schemes based on light localization, one using erbium dopant and the other one Raman scattering, are demonstrated for the first time and compared to traditional distributed feedback fiber lasers.